Sunday, March 15, 2020

Roman Law Essays - Roman Law, Ius, Ancient Rome, Jus Gentium

Roman Law Essays - Roman Law, Ius, Ancient Rome, Jus Gentium Roman Law Introduction Roman Law was the law that was in effect throughout the age of antiquity in the City of Rome and later in the Roman Empire. When Roman rule over Europe came to an end, Roman law was largelythough not completelyforgotten. (Ancient Rome, Compton's 96) The earliest code of Roman Law was the Law of the Twelve Tables. It was formalized in 451-450BC from existing oral law by ten magistrates, called decemvirs, and inscribed on tablets of bronze, which were posted in the principal Roman Forum. According to tradition, the code was drawn up to appease the plebs, who maintained that their liberties were not adequately protected by the unwritten law as interpreted by patrician judges. (Ancient Rome, Compton's 96) Originally ten tablets of laws were inscribed; two more tablets were added the following year. The tablets were destroyed in the sack of Rome by the Gauls in 390BC, but a number of the laws are known through references in later Latin literature. The Twelve Tables covered all categories of the law and also included specific penalties for various infractions. The code underwent frequent changes but remained in effect for almost 1000 years. In the 6th century a commission appointed by the Roman emperor Justinian consolidated all the sources of law, resulting in the Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law). The Corpus Juris had no immediate effect in Western Europe, but in the second half of the 11th century it was rediscovered in Italy. The study of law based on the Corpus Juris was instituted at European universities, and the Corpus Juris became an important part of Continental law. (Ancient Rome, Compton's 96) Combined with canon law and the customs of merchants, they formed a body of law known throughout continental Europe. During the 17th and 18th centuries the authority of the Corpus Juris began to decline as it was reexamined. The stage was set for the codification of modern civil law. In the 19th century most civil-law countries codified the bulk of their legal statutes. The Early Law Prior to the Twelve Tables, the law of Rome was religious in character, and its interpretation rested with priests, who were members of the patrician class. Complaints and agitation by the plebs, the common people, led to the reduction to writing of the existing legal customs and the addition of new principles unknown in the customary law. The Law of the Twelve Tables thus drafted was submitted to and accepted by the popular assembly. This code set forth simple rules suitable for an agricultural community; it established equal law for patricians and plebs and was prized by the Romans as the source of all public and private law. The legal system established under this code, and the body of rules that developed around it, applied exclusively to Roman citizens and was known as the jus civile. (Ancient Rome, Compton's 96) The laws of the Twelve Tables are one of the earliest extant law codes. Covering both civil and criminal matters, it is commonly believed that these laws served to codify existing custom. They provide not only a valuable insight into Roman law, but into Roman culture as well. Here are some excerpts taken from the translated version. Quickly kill ... a dreadfully deformed child. If a father thrice surrender a son for sale, the son shall be free from the father. A child born ten months after the father's death will not be admitted into a legal inheritance. Females shall remain in guardianship even when they have attained their majority ... except Vestal Virgins. A spendthrift is forbidden to exercise administration over his own goods. Persons shall mend roadways. If they do not keep them laid with stone, a person shall drive his beasts where he wishes. It is permitted to gather fruit falling down on another man's farm. If any person has sung or composed against another person a song such as was causing slander or insult to another, he shall be clubbed to death. If a person has maimed another's limb, let there be retaliation in kind unless he makes agreement for settlement with him. Intermarriage shall not take place between plebeians and patricians. ( Effects of Roman Rule Conquest over the Mediterranean basin compelled the Romans to work

Friday, February 28, 2020

Nursing Agency in Nova Scotia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Nursing Agency in Nova Scotia - Essay Example These are just some of the professional problems faced by nurses. Add to them some of the economic and political problems of their country, and you come up with a perfect recipe of a nursing headache faced by hundreds of nurses. These pose a huge challenge to government agencies and to the health care sector of a province. The nurses of Nova Scovia have taken up the challenge of an ever-challenging health care system. Through conjoined efforts of various sectors, the province was able to recognize problems faced by the nursing profession and to pose a strategy to combat these challenges. It is the foremost objective of the paper to present how the province of Nova Scovia has responded to the issues of nursing agency. A brief background of the province will set the mood for a more comprehensive discussion of the nursing profession in the province. The development of the nursing agency in the province will also be discussed. Current issues and trends in the health care system with focus on nursing agency will be discussed. Implications of the issues will also be tackled. Finally, future directions of the nursing agency in Nova Scovia will be discussed. Recommendations will also be presented in the last part of the paper. Nova Scotia is a Canadian province located on Canada’s southeastern coast. It is he second smallest province of Canada. The total land area of the province is 55,284 square kilometers. In 2006, the population of the province is 934,405. As such, it is the fourth least populated but second most densely populated province of Canada (Canadian Population, 2006). Between 60% to 75% of the population lives in rural areas. Nova Scotia is considerably more rural than Canada as a whole and more rural than most other provinces and territories. Only two provinces (New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island) and the three northern territories have a greater percentage of their

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

How technology can affect the movie buessines in the future Essay - 1

How technology can affect the movie buessines in the future - Essay Example The movie industry has always supported and promoted new technological advancements even back in 1920’s when sound was first incorporated in a movie. (1) Digital revolution will be the landmark development made in the history of home entertainment. One of the best technological improvements made in the movie business is digital technology. The biggest transition in the movie industry is the evolution of digital technology. Digital technology is considered to be the revolution in every field of the film industry. One of the most important advantages of digital revolution is allowing people to download movies at any time through the internet broadband. Digital cinema provides clarity, high quality experience and greater flexibility in programming the details. Digital film making required the theaters to also adopt digital technology which would enhance the quality of film, provide the best visuals while being cost effective. (2) Audio programming, post production and exhibition continue to be digital and there is rapid progression towards digital technology in the movie industry. Visual effects, editing are also predominantly handled by digital technology. One can expect the actual film making process to become completely digitalized in the coming years .Moviemakers would be able to create movies and sell and distribute them on the internet. (2) Many movie directors and producers fear that the new technology can be a threat as people will easily download movies even before they are released rather than going to theaters.The movie and audio industry has already been negatively affected in the last few years. Since more people are listening to MP3’s and other digital formats, the use of CD’s are seldom and cassettes no longer used. The impact is more for the audio industry as music is downloaded free from many websites. With the introduction of Blu Ray technology, people can download movies and can watch them in excellent sound

Friday, January 31, 2020

The Meaning of Life Essay Example for Free

The Meaning of Life Essay The meaning of life, defined by Victor E. Frankl, is the will to find your meaning in life. It is not the meaning of life in general, but rather the specific meaning of a persons life at a given moment. He believes that if you are approached with the question of what is the meaning of my life or in this case, life is meaningless, then you should reverse the question to that person asking the question. For example: What are you bringing to me? What are you as an individual contributing to this life? This forces the person in question to take a look at themselves and to ultimately be responsible. Frankl says that if you are a responsible member of society than the meaning of life transcends from yourself rather from your own psyche. He also says that if we for some reason cannot find meaning within ourselves it has to be from some outside source. This is referred to as service. And an example of this is love. Victor Frankl describes three ways in which we can discover the meaning of life; Creating work-doing a deed, experiencing something-someone, and by the attitude we take toward unavoidable suffering. There are several reasons why a person could be feeling that their life is meaningless or has no meaning. According to Victor Frankl these reasons could be existential frustration, existential vacuum, and the meaning of suffering. Frankl breaks down the meaning of existential frustration as so, it can be referred to as existence itself ? the specifically mode of being, the meaning of existence, and striving to find concrete meaning in personal existence, which is the will to meaning. Existence itself, in simpler terms is just existing and the human mode itself. The meaning of existence is the question in which we often ask ourselves; Why are we here? When we strive to find concrete meaning in personal existence, we are looking for the personal meaning for existence. Basically what Frankl is saying is that when we are dealing wit the existential frustration we are looking for given meaning that isnt there. (There is no meaning). On the other hand there is the existential vacuum, which is when you cannot find meaning in your life. Frankl says that the existential vacuum manifests itself mainly in the state of boredom. Its when you feel that you have no structure in your life, no one telling you what to do, your not learning anything, and basically your not doing anything with your life. Because of this youre going to become a conformist or a totalitarian, which is either doing what everyone else does or doing what people tell you to do. Youre not thinking for yourself. Youre also going to become bored. In the state of boredom the person can start to see life as meaningless, esp. the person questioning the meaning of their life. They start to question themselves and wonder what their purpose and meaning of their life is. This boredom can be a result of condition called Sunday Neurosis. Sunday Neurosis takes place when a person has worked hard all week long or for many days on end. (We know this as a result of tension; its what drives us and keeps us going. It promotes meaning and gives us goals. It is not the same as stress, because stress is an overabundance of tension. ) Then a day comes along when you have nothing planned, nothing going on and you dont know what to do with yourself. Therefore boredom results and when there is boredom there is no meaning. And when there is no meaning we fill that emptiness with negative things, like money, power, and pleasure, basically we get into trouble. The meaning of suffering is another reason why a person might be questioning the meaning of their life. Frankl says that one of the basic aspects of logotherapy that mans main concern is not to gain pleasure or to avoid pain, but to see the meaning of his life. This is why man is willing to suffer in order to find a meaning for his life. But he also says that suffering is not necessary to find meaning in life. Although suffering is inevitably unavoidable, and if it was it would be meaningful to remove it, because it wouldnt make much sense not to do so. Another aspect about suffering is that it stops being suffering the moment we find meaning in it. Now that possible reasons for why a person may be feeling that their life has no meaning has been addressed, here are some possible solutions that Frankl might suggest. Once the person has discovered why their life is meaningless they need to rediscover their meaning that they lost. They could ask themselves a question like, what was I born with and what is the greater meaning in that? Because it is believed that youre born with a meaning that every single person on this Earth is born with a meaning. Life doesnt owe you anything. Basically youre the responsible one for all the stuff you put out into the world during your life. Another thing that he might talk about is what the person does everyday. If they arent doing anything with their life he might suggest them getting involved with something to help create tension. Since tension drives us and pushes us to reach our goals, it helps give us meaning. Frankl also sees responsible-ness as the essence of human existence. He says that everyman has a specific, unique job in life that he is too fulfill an that no one else can do this or replace this one person in the same way. As each situation in life represents a challenge to man and presents a problem for him to solve, the question of the meaning of life may actually be reversed. Each man is questioned by life and he can only answer to life by answering for his own life; he can only respond be being responsible. Frankl also says, Live as if were living already for the second time, and as if you had acted the first time as wrongly as you were about to act now! If it was me taking this person, sitting them down, after analyzing what could have caused this sense of unmeaning in their life, I would look at the options of how to find meaning. I agree with Frankl when he talks about meaning as tension and responsibility. I also agree with him when he discusses his views on how everyone is born with meaning and that everyone has a set occupation or vocation on life. I believe that everyone is unique in his or her own way. Therefore why should everyones lives be the same and have the same meaning. They dont. We are born with meaning and we have to find that meaning through our actions and our drive to live life and our interactions with the people and the things around us. Usually when I am presented with material in school I tend to form my opinion by looking at both sides if an issue, because there are usually two sides to every story. But by looking at Frankl and examining what he has to say about the meaning of life, suffering, love, frustration, boredom, tension, etc, I have rally gained a lot of knowledge that almost is common sense. If you sit and take the time to read the material through thoroughly you can see exactly where he is coming from. Hell take a difficult situation, such as suffering, and turn it completely around. As far as suffering goes I try to do the same thing, in a way. When Mark Felice died last October it crushed me. But I tried to look at the positive side and say well, his suffering is over and he was here to teach us how to live to be stronger and better people. Through our suffering, over the loss of his life, we ended his suffering. This is kind of what Frankl does, he turns things around and makes you view things from a different perspective. I like his way of thinking because its not always something that I would think of off the top of my head. Overall, I enjoyed the book although it was difficult at times to read, but I think I gained knowledge from it and see different ways to look at things now.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Animal Farm, by George Orwell :: Animal Farm Essays

The fiction book that I am doing my book report is on the novel, Animal Farm. This book was written by George Orwell in 1946. The setting of my book took place in a farm called â€Å"Manor Farm† during the Russian Revolution ear. The characters are basically farm animals. Some of these animals’ names are Old Major, Snowball, and Napoleon. They are all pigs from the farm. The animals on the farm get tired of how they are getting badly treated. So they end up overthrowing their farm owner Mr. Jones. After they overthrow their owner, the pigs start taking over the farm and taking control over all the other animals in the farm. Old Major was one of the oldest pigs in the farm. He was a very smart pig. He would tell the other animals how they were suppose to be living, how they were suppose to be getting treated and how they were suppose to get rid of their owner. One day Old Major was going to tell the animals what they must do and Old Major dies. Once Old Major dies the animals start fighting back against Mr. Jones. The animals even ended up getting rid of Mr. Jones. After Old Major died Napoleon and Snowball took over everything. Snowball didn’t last long on being one of the leaders with Napoleon. Napoleon ended up getting rid of Snowball too. Napoleon turned out to be an evil pig. He was just turning just like the humans in the book. Napoleon became a very mean pig that he ended up lying to all the farm animals and saying one thing and then doing another thing. Napoleon mainly just be treated the animals and started treating them bad. He would treat them like slaves in other words. So ever since the animals started to take control of the farm and the animals they finished up changing everything. The animals even ended up changing the farms name from â€Å"Manor Farm† to â€Å"Animal Farm†. But out of all the animals in the farm the smartest animals were the pigs. And the meanest pig out of all of them was Napoleon. Everything was a mess in the farm ever since the pigs got rid of Mr. Jones. Later on Mr. Jones tires to come back and get back his farm but the pigs did not let him. The book Animal Farm does not relate to me in any way.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Corruption in local government Essay

Corruption simply means dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those who are in power. Corruption is the evil which lead to the economic social and moral problems of a country. The man is greedy in nature so that’s why he desire more and more and for achieving his desire, sometime he chooses the path which is against his moral standards we have so many examples of corrupt people in the world. Corruption is the mother of all evils. Corruption has done a deplorable situation in the country. There are various forms of corruption such as bribery, nepotism and extortion which is deeply penetrated in our social system. There are many types of corruption like Political corruption, Systematic corruption, Organizational corruption, Judiciary corruption, Social corruption and many others. In Pakistan all these types of corruption have been done. Corruption has become very common thing in our social and political culture. All the important individuals of the society like Government and private employees are involved in corruption. The rising level of corruption has given many problems like depression ad sense of insecurity. Every department is involved in corruption. Due to corruption common people are deprived of their basic rights. Corruption can only be eradicated if there are honest people on senior government seats. These days Pakistan is in terrible situation because there is too much corruption in Pakistan. Every department is corrupt and not performing their duty with honesty. Due to this evil of corruption people cannot get their basis rights. The funds and money that should be spend to provide facilities to the people, they are gone in corruption. The development projects are incomplete due to corruption. Corruption has many bad effects in the lives of common people. There are many effects of corruption. Corruption give birth to many evils in the society and causing many problems to the country and the citizens of the county some of them are listed like It leads†¦

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Is Drinking too much Coffee Bad or Good Essay - 1114 Words

Although coffee is viewed as a food item, it can be used to understand the rhetoric’s of health, addiction and as a drink. The genus coffea produces berries that are used to obtain coffee. The commercially exploited species are coffea Arabica and coffea robusta. Coffea Arabica is the most used species that is used to extract coffee. This type is found in the highlands of Ethiopia, Sudan and Kenya and produces high quality coffee. The earliest consumption of coffee is believed to have been by the Sufi Muslims around mocha in Yemen. The coffee beans were harvested and brewed just like the way they are prepared today. From this area, it spread across the Middle East, Europe and finally to North Africa by the 16th century. (Pendergrast,†¦show more content†¦The result is strong coffee that has a layer of foam on the surface and the residue collects at the bottom. Espresso on the other hand forces water that is hot, pressurized and in vapor form through coffee that has been ground. This type of brewing makes the espresso more concentrated and is complex in chemical and physical components. Espresso that is well prepared forms reddish –brown foam called crema at the surface. (Pendergrast, 2010). Filtering coarsely ground coffee beans after mixing it in cold water after several hours, results in cold coffee brew. Coffee is viewed as an unhealthy habit by most people similar to smoking and excessive drinking of alcohol. However most studies show that poor lifestyle factors such as reduced physical activity, smoking and eating a lot of whole grains result in health risks than coffee. This is to say that coffee consumption alone is not harmful to your health. Drinking six cups of coffee in a day could result in tremors, sleeping problems and feeling stressed. However, it has no direct effect on mortality or other health factors. Coffee contains many different compounds and not just caffeine alone. Therefore, consumption of coffee results in diverse health outcomes. 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